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Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease that damages the optic nerve, which is responsible for transmitting visual information from the eye to the brain. It is often characterized by increased pressure within the eye, known as intraocular pressure (IOP), although it can also occur with normal or low IOP. The exact cause of glaucoma is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic predisposition, age, and other factors.

There are several types of glaucoma, with the most common being primary open – angle glaucoma. In this form, the drainage channels within the eye gradually become less efficient at draining fluid, leading to an increase in IOP. This can result in damage to the optic nerve and subsequent vision loss.


Glaucoma is often referred to as the “silent thief of sight” because it typically progresses slowly and painlessly, with no noticeable symptom s in the early stages. As the disease advances, peripheral vision may be affected, leading to tunnel vision. If left untreated, glaucoma can eventually cause permanent blindness.


Regular comprehensive eye exams are crucial for early detection of glaucoma. Tests such as tonometry measure IOP, while visual field tests assess peripheral vision.

Treatment options for glaucoma aim to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) to prevent or slow down the progression of the disease. These include laser therapy ( such as selective laser trabeculoplasty or laser peripheral iridotomy) and prescription eye drops, which are often the first line of treatment . Other options include oral medications, micro – invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) procedures, and traditional glauc oma surgeries like trabeculectomy or tube shunt implantation. The choice of treatment depends on the severity and type of glaucoma.

Regular monitoring and follow – up visits with an Ophthalmologist are crucial to ensure the effectiveness of treatment and make any necessary adjustments. While glaucoma – related vision loss is irreversible, early diagnosis and ongoing management can significantly slow the progression and preserve vision to a great extent.